Dear readers for the next few minutes “Nalaik Panda” will sound nerdy so bear with me even i reprimand my self being like this .In the Final Semester of Electrical Engineering we are forced to study sociology, Pakistan Engineering Council doesn’t give you options to chose the subject of your choice. So its either you like it or not you got to abode in hell, that’s how is it. Never the less i wanted to study Sociology because many of Islamic Scholars like Dr.Israr Ahmad and Ustad Nouman Ali khan studied it to understand their Deen (Religion). I studied the Tafseer(translation) of Quran last year and then i rolled in Sociology class, and my experience is kind of a “deja vu” because everything i study in class, i already have studied it in Quran tafseer. So i sit there like a Boss .
Before We begin, let me tell you Islam got completed 1400 years ago, and Sociology commenced in 18th century. When you will open up the book you will see the defination of sociology which is ” The science of Society and the Human behavior “. Almost all the Mufasir (one who explains Quran) will agree upon the topic of Quran as ” Human Being” . Auguste Comte (1789-1857) is known as the pioneer of sociology who defined this term, he believed a study of society is needed for the stability of the society. What is the ultimate aim of the Quran ” Guidance of the Mankind” . if the stability is lost the society destroys, What does Allah tells us in Quran about the previous nations of Prophet Loth Pbuh, the people of Samud, the People of Hud etc.
Max Weber (1864-1920) tossed that to understand the human behavior we must comprehend the subjective meaning people attach to their actions. Now the sayings of Prophet Mohammad Pbuh are called “Hadiths” and there are books known as collection of hadiths. The very 1st Hadith you will find in “Sahih Bukhari” and “Radius Saleheen” is, “The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended” . now remind you that Prophet Mohamamd Pbuh was an unlettered person, Never attended any college, he was an orphan, and was also a Shepard.
Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) ,according to him ultimate social reality is the group not the individual. lets read Surah Al-Asr ” By time,Indeed, mankind is in loss,Except for those who have believed and done righteous deeds and advised each other to truth and advised each other to patience.” in the explanation you will see those who will have their salvation are the people in the form of a group, indicated by the use of word “those who” not “One who” , even in Surah Fateha we pray to Allah “It is You we worship and You we ask for help.” not ” It is you i worship and you i ask for help” , Quran establishes the fact that ultimate social reality is Group not the individual, it knew it from the tafseer of Dr.Israr Ahmad, Ustad Nouman Ali khan and Sheik Nasir Jangda .
Now moving a step further, there are three perspective of a sociologist to view the society.
1). One who sees a society as a stable on going entity , looks it as a living organism, in which each part of the organism contributes to its survival. Its called Functionalist Perspective. Quran already reinforces it and at many places you will see ayats like this
“And among His Signs is that He created for you mates from among yourselves, that you may dwell in tranquility with them, and He put love and mercy between your hearts. Verily in that are Signs for those who reflect.” [Sûrah Rûm: 21]
“[And] who created seven heavens in layers. You do not see in the creation of the Most Merciful any inconsistency. So return [your] vision [to the sky]; do you see any breaks?” (67:3).
“Indeed, in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day are signs for those of understanding.Who remember Allah while standing or sitting or [lying] on their sides and give thought to the creation of the heavens and the earth, [saying], “Our Lord, You did not create this aimlessly; exalted are You [above such a thing]; then protect us from the punishment of the Fire.” (3:190-191).
Quran reinforces it that every part of the creation that includes society as well,which is not created aimlessly, Each and everything has a role in the survival of the society.
2). Conflict Perspective is to see the world in continual struggle and in conflict. Quran doesn’t deny it,infact it tells us the very 1st conflict that occur between two different races, The Satan, Adam and the Angels from the light. Angels complained to God, why are you creating mankind as your viceroy on earth ,he will only create mischief while we worship you.Allah said to them you don’t know what i know, he asked the angels to tell him the names of everything they couldn’t, but Adam did it all with the knowledge given to him from Allah, So the Angels said to God, verily we know only which you have taught us,you is the knowing the wise. and the Conflict between the Adam and the Angels got resolve. So Allah told every one angels and the Satan to bow down to Adam,Every one prostrated except the Satan. Allah asked Satan why you didn’t obey me? he said that he is from the fire and Adam is from the clay. And from that day there is a conflict Between human race and Satan kind. Read Surah Baqarah from 30 -39 ayats.
Dr.Israr Ahmad explained beautifully the ayats of Surah Fateha ” Show us the Straight(Middle) path ” , he said there will always be conflict between Gender, Parents and Children, Husband and Wife, Brother and sister, Government and public, Teacher and student, Master and slave, White and black, (which is Marxist view,i don’t know if Dr.Israr Ahmad studied Marxist view but he explained this in the tafseer) ,When we say to Allah guide us, actually we are not asking for the salvation, we are also asking for the balance, in which we don’t become extreme and oppress the other side.
3). Interactionist Perspective , who see the daily happenings and daily interactions , one of the interactionist Perspective is “Dramatically Approach” , which is coined by Ervin Goffman (1922-1982), who said the world is like a stage/theater and each one of us is a actor . I find this very spiritual, because a Muslim believes that we are all being watched by Allah and every act of ours is being evaluated by him on the basis of our intentions. and he is the best of the judges.
“[He] who created death and life to test you [as to] which of you is best in deed – and He is the Exalted in Might, the Forgiving -” (67-2).
“Is not Allah the most just of judges?” (95:8).
A sociologist must not only have one perspective to see the society, Same thing is Quran applying by giving us different perspective . There are many more things in Sociology that you will find Quran already enlightening upon. It is me being a Nalaik Panda fail to see and i haven’t been doing Quranic study since last few months.If you have read all of this that i have written so far, then I’m Glad to waste your Precious time, and you are welcome.